Types of Printing method in Textile Industry | Texhour
The roller printing is one of the printing method and a machine counterpart of block printing. Engraved copper cylinders or rollers are used in place of hand-carved blocks. With every revolution of the roller, a repeat of the design is printed.
Types of Printing method in Textile Industry
• This is a machine counterpart of block printing.
• Engraved copper cylinders or rollers are used in place of hand-carved blocks.
• With every revolution of the roller, a repeat of the design is printed.
• The printed fabric is passed into a drying then a steam chamber wherever the wet and warmth set the dye.
• It is done either with flat or cylindrical screens manufactured from silk threads, nylon, polyester, or metal.
• The printing paste or dye is poured on the screen and made through its unblocked areas onto the fabric by means that of a squeegee.
• Based on the type of the screen used, it is known as 'Flat (Table) Screen Printing' or 'Rotary Screen Printing'.
• Screen printing is far and away the foremost fashionable in these days.
Flat Screen Printing:
• An advantage of flat screen printing is that multiple squeegee passes can be made over the same portion of the fabric, which can intensify the coloration.
• This makes flat screen printing very suitable for high pile fabrics.
Rotary Screen Printing:
• In rotary screen printing, a cylindrical screen rotates on a fixed axis.
• The fabric travels at a constant speed between the screen and a steel or rubber impression roller immediately below the screen.
• Typical speeds are from 5 to 80 meters per minute depending upon style complexness and cloth construction.
• Rotary screen machines are additional compact than flat-screen machines for a similar range of colors within the pattern. Therefore, they use less plant floor space.
• The size of the design repeat is dependent upon the circumference of the screens.
• Moderns rotary machines are generally equipped for taking up screens of standard repeats of 640 mm (25-1/4”), 820 mm (32-1/4”), 914 mm (36”) and 1018 mm (40”)
• Rotary screen machines are extremely productive, allow the short transformation of patterns, have few style limitations, and may be used for each continuous and discontinuous patterns.
• Estimates indicate that this method controls more or less 60% of the printed cloth market worldwide.
• The principle disadvantage of rotary screen printing is that the high fixed costs of the instrument.
• The machines are usually not profitable for brief yardages of wide varied patterns, due to the clean-up and machine downtime when dynamic patterns.
• Color intensity also cannot be controlled as only one squeegee pass is available with a rotary screen.
By vaporization, the design on a paper is transferred to a cloth.
The two type of transfer printing are,
1. Dry heat transfer printing
2. Wet heat transfer printing.
In dry heat transfer printing, the fabric is pressed against the printed paper which is placed on a heat resistant blanket and an electrically heated cylinder is used for this process.
In wet heat transfer printing, it uses heat in a very wet atmosphere for vaporizing the dye pattern from paper to cloth.
• It is a right away printing technique wherever the background color and also the design are each printed onto a white cloth sometimes in one operation.
• Any of the strategies like block, roller or screen could also be used.
• In this form of printing micro-sized droplets of dye are placed onto the fabric through an inkjet printhead (much like the conventional color ink-jet printer)
• The print system software interprets the data supplied by a digital image file.
•To achieve the image quality and color control, the digital image file has the control of droplet output.
• It is roller printing applied to warp yarns before they are woven into the fabric. Fine white or neutral colored yarn is used for the weft.
• The design produced is soft, nebulous, and is often used in upholstery fabrics.
• It is the technique of depositing many small fiber particles, called "flock“, onto a surface of a fabric to produce a colored design.
• So colored fibers are used instead of dyes, and an adhesive is used to affix this flock on the fabric.
• The Flocks are of colored fiber in cotton, wool, rayon, nylon or acrylic are applied in the upright position and produce a pile-like, velvety surface.
• Generally, the flock fiber lengths vary from 2 – 6 mm.