Printing and its Types in Textile Industry | Texhour.com

The formation of a specific colored decorative design on a fabric, with sharply defined edges. A print will normally NOT penetrate completely to the reverse of the fabric – unless the fabric is very sheer. Most classes of dyes such as reactive, vat, naphthol and disperse can produce prints with requisite color brightness and fastness.

Printing and its Types in Textile Industry | Texhour.com
Printing and its Types in Textile Industry

 

Printing

• The formation of a specific colored decorative design on a fabric, with sharply defined edges.

• A print will normally NOT penetrate completely to the reverse of the fabric – unless the fabric is very sheer.

• Most classes of dyes such as reactive, vat, naphthol and disperse can produce prints with requisite color brightness and fastness.

• Pigment colors are the most used in the printing industry. They come in a powder form and adhere to the fibers with the help of resins, which provide adequate adhesion to withstand laundering and dry-cleaning.

• Pigments, especially in light and medium shades and low coverage, are colorfast to most external influences.

• In deep colors and large coverage, the crocking (rubbing) results will be poor. Because of the resin used, pigment printed fabrics will have a stiff hand-feel, and be less permeable - making for uncomfortable wear.

 

Types of Printing

There are 3 basic approaches to printing a color on a fabric,

1. Direct printing 

2. Discharge printing

3. Resist printing

 

Direct Printing

• Direct Printing is the most common approach. It can be done with both white and colored fabric. If it is done on colored fabric, it is called overprinting.

• Water-based prints use water-soluble dyes which are imprinted on the fabric in a paste form by dissolving in water to which a thickening agent has been added e.g. gums or seaweed alginates.

• Pigment printing is done without special thickeners, as the pigment itself is a powder, and resins and solvents are also being added which make the mixture viscous.

 

Discharge printing

• It has the ability to make bright, opaque colors with a soft hand on dark dyed grounds. This cannot be achieved with any direct printing method.

• The fabric is the first piece dyed in the requisite ground color with reactive dyestuffs which are dischargeable.

• This fabric is then printed with the discharging ink when the bleaching agent destroys (removes) the body color, and the added pigment gives the printed area a new color.

• The discharging ink has a short shelf life and has to be used within a few hours of its preparation.

Requirements for Discharge Printing:

* The fabric or garment should be made from cellulosic fibers. If blended, the cotton content should be at least 80%.

* Some dyes resist the discharge reaction and take on a tint of the original fabric color – eg kelly green, purple and royal blue.

* The fabric or garment should not have been over-dyed, as phantom colors may surface once the top color is cut.

 

Resist Printing

• In resist dyeing which a wax or other substance is printed onto fabric which is subsequently dyed. The waxed areas do not accept the dye, leaving uncolored patterns against a colored ground.

• Batik and tie-dyeing are examples of resist printing.